By Simin Karimi

This research addresses the issues scrambling langauges supply for the prevailing syntactic theories by means of interpreting the interplay of semantic and discourse practical components with syntactic houses of notice order during this form of languages, and by means of discussing the results of this interplay for common Grammar. 3 interrelated objectives are conscientiously during this paintings. the 1st is to investigate the syntactic constitution of Persian, a language which shows loose note order. With this research, the writer has accounted for the relative order of categorised expressions, the inducement for his or her attainable rearrangements, and the grammatical result of these reorderings. during this recognize, a large variety of significant syntactic phenomena, together with item shift, Case, prolonged Projection precept (EPP), binding, and scope interpretation of quantifiers, interrogative words, adverbial words, and unfavourable components are tested. This monograph is the 1st significant theoretical paintings ever released on Persian, and consequently fills the present hole by means of delivering perception into the syntactic constitution of this language. the second one target is to attach those insights to related linguistic homes in languages within which scrambling happens (e.g. German, Dutch, Hindi, Russian, eastern, and Korean), and to supply a deeper knowing of this workforce of genetically different, yet typologically similar languages. the ultimate and imperative aim is to situate the result of this paintings in the framework of the Minimalist software (MP). The investigations during this examine point out that scrambling isn't an non-compulsory rule, and that convinced rules of MP, comparable to the minimum hyperlink , are just doubtless violated in those languages. additionally, it really is proven that cautious research of scrambling with recognize to binding and scope kin, and a reanalysis of the homes of A and A' pursuits, forged a few doubts at the relevance of a typology of circulate in ordinary language.

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Additional info for A Minimalist Approach to Scrambling: Evidence from Persian

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Thus, this movement is triggered 46 Chapter 2: Literature on Scrambling by a morphological feature associated with Case. Passive and raising constructions are typical examples of A-movement. Passive: (26) Johni was arrested ti by the police last night. Raising: (27) Johni appears [ti to be very happy these days] A(rgument) positions are considered to have distinct syntactic properties as follows: First, movement to an A–position is subject to locality, thus A-movement is clause bound. Second, Weak Crossover (WCO) can be overridden if the movement is into an A–position.

Kimea what a hard earth yesterday collided. b. *Kimea zamin-e xaxti diruz xord Kimea earth-Ez hard yesterday collided In (36a), che ‘what’ provides a quantificational reading for the nonverbal element, and allows it to scramble. This element is missing in (36b), resulting in the ill-formedness of this sentence. The third type of elements that are subject to limited scrambling are verb phrases. These elements might locally undergo scrambling over the subject as in (37). ’ However, long distance scrambling of VP is not possible: (38) *[un film-ro did-an] Kimea goft una that movie-râ saw-3pl K said they 20 Chapter 1: Introduction An explanation for the limited scrambling of the elements discussed in this section is provided in chapter 4.

The existence of uninterpretable features raises a number of empirical and conceptual problems. For a critical view see Karimi (2003d). Within this theory, phrases such as ArgP that consist of categories with only uninterpretable features cannot exist. The reason is that they remain with no label once their uninterpretable features are matched and deleted. One departure from the earlier version of MP is that feature checking is not required to apply in a Spec-head relation. All that is required is a c-command relation in a local domain.

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