By Christopher Lord
A Democratic Audit of the ecu Union presents a scientific overview of democracy within the european opposed to basically outlined standards. Christopher Lord deals a double problem to generalizations a couple of democratic deficit within the european. at the one hand, it exhibits that criteria of democratic functionality within the european may well fluctuate throughout Union associations and decision-making procedures. nonetheless, it indicates that they could range throughout key dimensions of democratic governance, together with citizenship, rights, participation, illustration, responsiveness, transparency and responsibility.
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Extra resources for A Democratic Audit of the European Union (One Europe or Several?)
It can reject by an absolute majority of its membership at first reading or a simple majority of its membership at third reading. The Council cannot over-turn that rejection. ) Assent. The EP is able to reject but not amend. This applies, for example, to international Treaties signed by the EU. Second pillar procedures Common strategies are agreed by heads of government in the European Council on proposals framed by their foreign ministers. Those strategies can then be carried out by the following: Joint actions.
258) ‘all national law must give way to Community law, even if the national constitution has to be set aside’ (see esp. Case 6/64 Costa v. ENEL (1964) ECR 585, Case 11/70 (1970) Internationale Handelsgesellschaft ECR 1125, Case 92/78 (1978) Simmenthal II). An implication, as Alex Stone Sweet argues, is that ‘supremacy could work to insulate EC law from national rights protection’ (2000, p. 171). European Institutions – which are not themselves subject to a legally binding Bill of Rights – could be a source of laws that lack the rights protections that, for example, help define what it is to be a German citizen yet still take priority to the rights enumerated in German Basic Law.
10. How far do individuals and groups have means of aggregating and deliberating preferences at EU level (if need be, independently of their national governments)? 11. How far are those who hold office or make decisions in EU institutions accountable to elected representatives of citizens at Union level? 5. How far are those who hold office or make decisions in Union institutions accountable to representatives of national democracies who are, in turn, responsible to their national publics and parliaments?